A Critique of Richard Anderson's Explanation For Mucoid Plaque


What Richard Anderson has been saying about mucoid plaque is not quite right. To be sure, his explanation as to what mucoid plaque actually is is closer to reality than his predecessors' explanation. Benard Jensen[1] and Robert Gray[2] both thought it was primarily feces. Richard Anderson on the other hand thinks it is primarily coagulated mucus, which is actually more accurate but still technically wrong.

His explanation for mucoid plaque is scattered throughout his two volume work Cleanse & Purify Thyself. On pages 36 and 37 of book one he defines mucoid plaque as being primarily mucin. Mucin is the chief component of mucus. On page 65 of book two he mentions that mucoid plaque is created by the body to protect itself when it is under attack by, among other things, aspirin, alcohol, and salt. On page 59 of book two he says that acid then causes it to coagulate and that it compounds with other elements forming an increasingly firm substance.

Medical science does talk about how exogenous damaging agents such as alcohol, NSAID (aspirin), hypertonic saline (salt), and bile cause damage to the mucosa. They say a "mucoid coat" or "mucoid cap" forms over the damaged area protecting the vulnerable mucosa from pepsin as well as from renewed insult from the aforementioned exogenous damaging agents while it undergoes repair. Medical science also mentions that although mucoid cap is composed principally of a fibrin gel and necrotic cells with mucus being a relatively minor component, there are some researchers who wrongly designate it as "mucus".[3]

It appears, judging by some of the sources he cited on page 65 of book two, that Richard Anderson was looking at those researchers who were wrongly designating mucoid cap as "mucus". This apparently made him think that mucus production was unnatural and led him to the absurd corollary that mucoviscidosis is a good example of mucoid plaque. He announced on page 84 of book two that doctors were wrong for thinking that the adherent mucus layer is needed for protection and lubrication of the mucosal surface and claimed, without evidence, that it is actually the glycocalyx that provides these functions. Richard Anderson is of course wrong. The adherent mucus layer is in fact needed for protection and lubrication of the mucosa, and the glycocalyx does not in fact function as lubrication.[4]

Richard Anderson was referring to Forstner's work, which he misinterpreted, when he said that acid causes mucin to coagulate. Forstner [5] was studying the effect acid and serum albumin has on mucus. When he mixed albumin with mucin, viscosity increased dramatically. This, by the way, is probably why some types of mucoid plaque are incredibly viscous. He then added acid to the mix, which caused it to coagulate into a dense white precipitate.

Now, Forstner noted that neither albumin nor mucin alone coagulated when exposed to acid. This coagulation effect only occured when acid was added to a mucin-albumin mixture. Richard Anderson left the albumin part out. Forstner did think that it was the mucin itself that coagulates. But I think it's actually the albumin which coagulates. We already know that mucus helps fibrinogen to coagulate into fibrin.[3] Mucin with the help of acid probably does the same thing to albumin.

The components of mucoid cap itself adequately explain the texture, shape, color, and even smell of mucoid plaque without the need for any added explanations. Textbooks on wound healing, for example, clinically describe necrotic tissue and fibrin collectively as "black", "brown", "gray", "yellow", "green", "hard", "soft", "mucoid", "stringy", "sticky", "rubbery", "leathery", "putrid" and "foul".[6] This is exactly how Richard Anderson, Robert Gray, and Benard Jensen clinically described mucoid plaque. [7] It's a remarkable coincidence.

But Richard Anderson did not realize that mucoid plaque is mucoid cap. He attempted to explain the different colors of mucoid plaque in terms of bile. On page 93 of book two he writes: "In color, mucoid plaque can be gray, yellow, green or light green, or light brown to black, but often is blackish green, which may indicate a relationship to bile." This of course implies that bile can be black, which gives skeptics something more to laugh at. In medieval medicine, black bile is one of the four humors of the body.

In many respects, Richard Anderson is a crank. His work is full of medical ignorance, pseudoscience, and weirdness. He thinks vaccines are evil. He thinks emotions are stored in mucoid plaque. Etc. It's embarrassing. I can't help but think that the disrespect he receives from the scientific community is largely self-inflicted. But I submit to you that despite his failings he actually got something right. He was right about the general idea of mucoid plaque. He just messed up real bad on the details because he is not very good at science.

References

[1] See book called "Tissue Cleansing Through Bowel Management". It was written by Bernard Jensen.

[2] See "The Colon Health Handbook" by Robert Gray.

[3] See textbook called "Gastric Cytoprotection: A Clinician’s Guide". The ISBN-13 is 978-1-4684-5699-8. See pages 84 & 87.

[4] See journal article called "The gastrointestinal mucus system in health and disease". You can get it here. The PMID is 23478383.

[5] See journal article called “Intestinal Mucins in Health and Disease”. It was written by Forstner JF. The DOI is 10.1159/000198115. The PMID is 25218.

[6] There are three textbooks I got this from. The first is the third edition of "Wound Care: A Collaborative Practice Manual for Health Professionals". It was published in 2007 and written by Carrie Sussman & Barbara Bates-Jensen. Turn to page 197. It describes it as "gray", "yellow", "brown", "black", "mucoid", "stringy", "leathery", "hard" and "soft". The second is the second edition of "Comprehensive Wound Management". It was published in 2010 and written by Glenn Irion. Turn to page 150 and 151. It describes it as "yellow", "greenish", "hardened", "grayish", "brownish-yellow", "stringy" and "foul". The third is the fourteenth edition of "Tidy's Physiotherapy". It was published in 2008 and written by Stuart Porter. Turn to page 340. It describes fibrin as "sticky", "rubbery", and being visible as yellow-white "strands".

[7] Go to each of their books. See Richard Anderson's book called "Cleanse & Purify Thyself". I'm talking about book two. Go to pages 92-94. He described it as "soft", "gray", "yellow", "green", "brown", "black", "foul", "mucoid", and like "wet leather or rubber". Go to Robert Gray's book called "The Colon Health Handbook". See pages 8 and 67. He described it as "rubbery", "black", "hardened", "grey", "brown", "green" and "mucoid". See Bernard Jensen's book called "Tissue Cleansing Through Bowel Management". He described it as "black", "foul", "putrid", "stringy", and "hard as truck tire rubber".
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Watch As Mucoid Cap Turns Into Mucoid Plaque

In my previous blog post I explained how mucoid cap looks something like tissue when it lines the mucosa. Not until it sloughs away from the mucosa does it look like the so-called mucoid plaque that cleansers remove. Now in this post I'm going to show it to you. Take a look at plate 81:


It's from a textbook called Clinical Gastroenterology.[1] It depicts "necrotic mucosa" of the descending colon with acute ischemic colitis. See that small blackish area? The gastroenterologist who commented about this photo called this "acute focal necrosis". Focal necrosis is associated with active inflammation and mucus depletion.[2]

As I explained in my previous blog post, what is actually going on is that the active inflammation is actually depleting the mucus. More precisely, enzymes produced during active inflammation is dissolving the mucus-exudate mixture that normally covers up the eschar component of the mucoid cap layer. To show you what I mean, here is a drawing of a cross section of the mucoid cap layer:


It's from page 85 of the textbook called "Gastric Cytoprotection: A Clinician’s Guide".[3] It's a very rough drawing and it's not to scale, but it shows how the necrotic cells are completely covered by a thin mucus (the necrotic cells is eschar and the "mucus" is actually a mucus-exudate mixture). As "mucus" degration continues, even more of the eschar component of the mucoid cap layer is revealed. You can see this happening in plate 74 [1] of the same textbook, which depicts Crohn's colitis of the sigmoid colon:


The Skeptical Raptor once described mucoid plaque as a "black tar goo" that adheres to the walls of the intestinal tract. Well there it is. Both Robert Gray and Benard Jensen thought it was feces.[4] But they were wrong. It's actually eschar.

Books on wound healing explain what happens when the enzymes then act on the eschar. The black/brown eschar rehydrates (and assumingly swells up) and turns toward a yellow or tan slough that is soft, loose, and that does not adhere to the wound bed.[5] This is precisely what you see in plate 83 of the same textbook. Plate 83 [1] is essentially slough mixed in with mucus:


Plate 83 of course looks like some of the types of mucoid plaque that cleansers remove. You never would have guessed that it originally looked something like plate 81. But it did. It originally looked something like tissue.

Now I submit to you that there are other areas of the gastrointestinal tract that look something like tissue but are not actually living tissue but rather a thick layer of mucoid cap. Look at plate 31 [1] from the same textbook for example:


This is somewhere in the jejunal. I believe this is exceptionally thick mucoid cap. Also look at plate 63 [1] from the same textbook:


This is the appendiceal orifice in the cecum. Notice that the texture of the "mucosa" of these two examples look very similiar to the texture of the "mucosa" of plate 81. The only difference is that there is no colitis and thus no "mucus" depletion.

I'm pretty sure that this is not what a normal mucosa is supposed to look like. With regards to plate 81 for example, it is supposed to look like plate 60 [1] from the same textbook:


A normal colon is supposed to have blood vessels and ridges.

References
[1] All photos in this post come from the fourth edition of "Clinical Gastroenterology" by Howard M. Spiro. The ISBN is 0-07-105434-0.

[2] See book called "Helicobacter pylori, Gastritis and Peptic Ulcer". It was published in 1990 and edited by P. Malfertheiner and H. Ditschuneit. The ISBN-13 is 978-3-642-75317-6. The e-ISBN-13 is 978-3-642-75315-2. The DOI is 10.1007/978-3-642-75315-2. On page 203 it suggests that active inflammation is associated with mucin depletion and "focal necrosis".

[3] The ISBN-13 is 978-1-4684-5699-8.

[4] Go to each of their books. Go to Robert Gray's book called "The Colon Health Handbook". On page 8 he says: "As layer after layer of gluey feces piles up in the colon, they often form into a tough, rubbery, nearly black substance". Go to Bernard Jensen's book called "Tissue Cleansing Through Bowel Management". He described it as "encrusted fecal material" that is hard and "black" like truck tire rubber.

[5] See the fourth edition of "Wound Care: A Collaborative Practice Manual for Health Professionals". It was written by Carrie Sussman & Barbara Bates-Jensen. The ISBN-10 is 1608317153. On page 447 it says: "When conservative methods of debridement are used, including mechanical, autolytic, and enzymatic techniques, the type of necrotic tissue should change as the wound improves. As the necrotic tissue is rehydrated, the appearance will change from a dry, desiccated eschar to soft slough and, finally, to a loose tissue that does not adhere to the wound bed. The color usually changes as well, the black/brown eschar giving way to yellow or tan slough."
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A Close Look at Robert Gray's Intestinal Cleansing Program


Robert Gray was one of the original masters at mucoid plaque removal. He was a nutritionist, herbalist and an innovator who made significant contributions to the subject. He developed an intestinal cleansing program, which you can buy at holistichorizons.com. His book, The Colon Health Handbook: New Health Through Colon Rejuvenation, is a must-read. It contains valuable information about mucoid plaque removal, mucus-less foods, mucoactive herbology, lactobacteria enhancement, cleansing reactions, and other subjects.

Robert Gray's most significant contribution, I think, is his pioneering use of mucolytic herbs to loosen, soften, or dissolve mucoid plaque. According to his book, acacia gum, aloes, barberry bark, bayberry bark, chickweed, chives, corn silk, golden seal root, grapes, iceberg lettuce, irish moss, olive oil, plantain, red clover flowers, rosemary, spirulina plankton, white bryony root, yellow dock root, and zucchini are all mucolytic herbs that act upon the "mucoid" in the gastrointestinal tract. Plantain is of key importance he says. It augments the activity of many different mucolytic herbs. When used alone, plantain has significant, albeit not extraordinary, mucolytic activity. However, when plantain is used synergistically along with other mucolytic herbs, it changes a good herbal formula into an excellent one.

Robert Gray's formula is a mixture of psyllium, rosemary, chickweed, cloves, plantain, bayberry, cornsilk extract, irish moss, onion, dandelion root, spirulina, and d-calcium pantothenate. The bayberry, chickweed, cornsilk extract, irish moss, plantain, and rosemary are all mucolytic herbs that synergistically act on the mucoid plaque in the gastrointestinal tract. The onion, dandelion root, and spirulina enhance the growth of intestinal lactobacteria. The psyllium is there to sweep out the mucoid plaque once it has been dissolved by the mucolytic herbs.

A unique feature of his intestinal cleansing program is that you are not required to fast. Previous healers like Victor Earl Irons and Bernard Jensen required you to fast. He believed that the only reason fasting works is because you are not eating mucus-forming foods. In my previous blog post I explain that mucus-forming foods are in actuality foods that directly or indirectly cause damage to the mucosa, which results in a "mucoid cap" forming over the damaged area and that some modern pathologists inappropriately refer to mucoid cap as "mucus". Anyway, the idea he has is that so-called mucus-forming foods cause fresh mucoid cap to form. He says that the mucolytic herbs will act on the fresh mucoid cap rather than the old hardened mucoid cap thus preventing you from making significant progress. So you don't need to fast — just eat a mucus-less diet.

I should point out that Robert Gray did not understand correctly what mucoid plaque actually was. He thought it was old compacted feces mixed in with sticky mucus. He was wrong. Mucoid plaque is actually mucoid cap. See my previous blog post for more details. That being said, his misunderstanding makes little practical difference given that medical science incidentally uses mucolytic agents to dissolve mucoid cap anyway.[1]

Robert Gray created an intestinal cleansing program that removes the mucoid cap layer by layer, promotes the growth of beneficial bacteria, minimizes constipation, requires no fasting or enemas, and allows you to make dietary changes gradually at your own pace. I cannot tell you that it is the most powerful program or the only method you will need. But it is certainly perfect for beginners and a valuable tool to add to your cleansing repertoire.

References

[1] See journal article called "Role of mucus in the repair of gastric epithelial damage in the rat. Inhibition of epithelial recovery by mucolytic agents". They talk about how they used the mucolytic agents N-acetylcysteine or pepsin to disintegrate the "mucoid cap" layer.
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Wikipedia is lying to you about mucoid cap


Go to Wikipedia. Type in the phrase "mucoid cap". It will tell you that "mucoid cap" is a pseudoscientific term. But this is not true. A google book search for the phrase "mucoid cap" reveals that it is decidedly a conventional medical term. How did this come to be?

This is how it came to be. A few years ago, I created a new Wikipedia page called "mucoid cap". This is so I could write about this conventional medical concept. Now as it turns out, medical science occasionally refers to "mucoid cap" as "mucoid coat"[1] or "mucoid plaque"[2]. These three terms are synonymous. So in accordance with Wikipedia rules, I create a disambiguation page.

The administrators on Wikipedia, who happened to be medical doctors, did not like this. They looked directly at this google book search for the phrase "mucoid cap" and claimed that "mucoid cap" is a "neologism" that I made up and further claimed that none of those sources suggest this is a "distinct" structure.

This is what Chris Hedges refers to as the permanent lie. The permanent lie is perpetuated even in the face of overwhelming evidence that discredits it. The iron refusal by those who engage in the permanent lie to acknowledge reality, no matter how transparent reality becomes, creates a collective psychosis. Looking directly at the aforementioned google book search, everyone can see that "mucoid cap" is not a neologism that I made up. And medical science explicitly states that the mucoid cap layer is "distinct" from the adherent mucus layer.[3]

Wikipedia has become a tool of the ruling elite. It is part of the corporate assault on scholarship, research, and verifiable fact. Learn more about it here:



And of course if you haven't already, see my previous post where I show you that mucoid plaque is a scientifically proven reality.

References

[1] See the book called "Gastric Cytoprotection: A Clinician’s Guide". The ISBN is 978-1-4684-5699-8. You can read it at books.google.com. It was published in 1989. Go to page 84. It speaks of a "mucoid coat" that is "quite different" than the adherent mucus layer. It says it is "substantially thicker" and visibly more "granular and sloppy" in appearance than the adherent mucus layer. It says it is composed principally of fibrin gel and necrotic cells with mucus as a relatively minor component. On page 87, it calls it "mucoid cap".

[2] See the 1973 edition of Diseases of the Colon & Rectum. It is volume 16 and number 6. The title of the article is "Ischemic Proctosigmoiditis: Report of a case". It was written by Won Sik Cynn & Robert R. Rickert. You can get it here. Go to page 539. It says "Early superficial zones of infarction may be covered by a mucoid plaque". On page 540, it defines mucoid plaque as a membrane of mucus, fibrin, necrotic cells, and a variable inflammatory exudate.

[3] See article called "The Role of Mucus in the Protection of the Gastroduodenal Mucosa". It's in the Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology. It is volume 21 and supplement 125 and is dated 1986. Go to pages 71-78.

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Rebecca Watson Wants You To Eat Processed Junk Food


Rebecca Watson is a skeptic. And there is something she is skeptical about. You can read about it on her post called "WTF is Processed Food and Why is it Going to Kill Us?". Apparently, it's now conventional advice to eliminate ultra processed food from your diet. The keyword here is "ultra". We're not talking about food that is simply cooked or mixed together in a food processor. We're talking about the most extreme stuff, like deep fried whatever with a bunch of preservatives in it etc. In the good ol' days Rebecca used to make fun of people who eschewed these type of foods: she referred to them as "dirty" hippies. But the good ol' days are gone. Avoiding so-called junk food is now the trendy thing to do. Still, she thinks that eating ultra processed food is actually no big deal. In fact, Megastuff Oreos are actually something your disgusting body deserves she says.

She is serious about this.

The only reason ultra processed foods are bad for you, she claims, is because they make it easier to consume more calories. That's it. She suggests that excess calories are the one and only cause of diet related diseases. She doesn't want you to eliminate processed food from your body — instead she wants you to count calories.

This is of course spectacularly stupid.

Excess calories are not the only reason ultra processed foods are bad for you. It's already an established fact, for instance, that processed meat intake is associated with colorectal cancer risk. It's not because it has an excess of calories — it's because it is nitrite-treated and oxidized cured.[1] Of course refined grains and sugar, by definition, lack fiber, vitamins, minerals, and other phytonutrients. They produce an inflammatory microbiota in the upper gastrointestinal tract. [2] And fried vegetable oil causes significant oxidative stress damage to the jejunum, colon and liver.[3]

Rebecca Watson is a poor role model for girls. She is teaching them to hate their body and to obsess about calories. She does this while encouraging them to binge on extremely processsed junk food.

References

[1] Meat Processing and Colon Carcinogenesis: Cooked, Nitrite-Treated, and Oxidized High-Heme Cured Meat Promotes Mucin-Depleted Foci in Rats

[2] Comparison with ancestral diets suggests dense acellular carbohydrates promote an inflammatory microbiota, and may be the primary dietary cause of leptin resistance and obesity

[3] Evaluation of the deleterious health effects of consumption of repeatedly heated vegetable oil

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What Causes Mucoid Plaque?


In my previous blog post I proved that mucoid plaque is a conventional medical concept. Read this first. Now I'm going to show you what causes it. Basically, anything that causes superficial damage to the mucosa causes mucoid plaque to form. In fact, researchers have actually created mucoid plaque in the lab. They did this by directly damaging rat mucosa using 50% ethanol.[1] They then watched as mucoid plaque formed over the damaged area. They did this to understand why mucoid plaque forms. Out of the lab though it's caused from the food that you eat.[2] The food that you are eating is indirectly causing superficial damage to your mucosa.

Take milk for example. You were told to drink 3 or 4 glasses of milk a day to prevent disease. Modern research is showing that this was perhaps a huge mistake. As you know, people of northern European ancestry have a mutation in the lactase gene, giving them the capacity to digest lactose into D-glucose and D-galactose. Experimental evidence in several animal species indicates that even a low dose of D-galactose in the diet causes, among other things, oxidative stress damage and chronic low grade inflammation.[3]

Chronic inflammation is one of the main factors that causes damage to the mucosa; the other ones are oxidative stress and microbes.[4] It's just like acute inflammation in many respects.[5] The only difference is that it is mild and prolonged rather than severe and acute. So it does not cause acute redness or swelling. But because of its prolonged duration, it actually produces more extensive tissue damage than acute inflammation.[22] During inflammation, neutrophils release lysosomal enzymes, which digest exudate and kill unwanted bacteria. But some of the enzymes also digest normal tissue and results in considerable collateral tissue damage.[6]

There is more bad news about animal products. The journal Nature recently reported that an animal based diet, including milk, alters the human gut microbiome in a harmful way. Such a diet increases the abundance and activity of putrefactive microbes. One such putrefactive microbe, Bilophila wadsworthia, produces hydrogen sulfide, which is thought to inflame intestinal tissue.[7] Benard Jensen spoke of this. He talked about how meat was very detrimental to the bowel because it is very putrefactive.[8]

Some researchers are mooting over acellular carbohydrates.[9] These are carbohydrates such as sugar, flour, and starches that are not locked up in cells. This includes whole grains, which have dry stores of starch designed for rapid mobilization during germination. The hypothesis is that these acellular carbohydrates produce a microbiota that causes inflammation of the gut. Mouse studies have indeed shown that a high sugar diet promotes intestinal dysbiosis and inflammation. [10] These researchers recommend we eat a grain-free whole foods diet of root tubers, leafy vegetables, stems, fruit, nuts, and only some consumption of meat.[9] Such a diet has carbohydrates that are locked in living cells. I should note that raw honey is an acellular exception. It actually promotes a healthy microbiota and helps heal wounds.[11]

In case you haven't heard, "low grade chronic metabolic acidosis" is a widespread condition in our modern society.[12] We are designed to eat mostly alkali-rich fruits and vegetables. But we are instead eating an acid-producing diet of mostly animal foods, sugars, alcohol, cereal grains, and processed foods. Such a diet makes the body overly acidic. In addition to causing many chronic degenerative diseases and accelerating the aging process, it causes acidification of the bile. This makes the bile extremely corrosive to the walls of the bile ducts, gallbladder, pancreatic duct, Sphincter of Oddi, Ampulla of Vater, and duodenum.[12]

And then there are lectins. Lectins survive digestion and bind to membrane glycosyl groups of the cells lining the digestive tract.[13] This causes damage to the mucosa. Apparently, lectins are found in a wide variety of foods; Dr. Steven Gundry, author of The Plant Paradox has a list of them. However, Dr. Joseph Mercola thinks grains, beans, soy, peanuts, eggplants, potatoes, tomatoes and peppers are among the most problematic. There is in fact research that shows that soy causes damage to the small bowel mucosa in infants consistent with a lectin-induced toxicity.[14]

You may not want to cook foods that are high in protein, fat, or sugar. It will generate large amounts of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). Some researchers are mooting over the possibility that AGEs stimulate inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract and elsewhere.[15] Even uncooked cheeses can contain large amounts of AGEs.[16] This is because of its curing or aging processes. In lab rats that were fed oil heated to their boiling points, histopathological observation depicted significant damage to the jejunum, colon and liver. [17] They think the heated oil results in the formation of free radicals that causes oxidative stress and induces damage. Note that most of the oils on the market, even in their uncooked forms, contain large amounts of AGEs due to the various extraction and purification procedures involving heat.[16]

Everyone knows that fiber is good for you. But there is an aspect of it you may not have heard of. It's food for the beneficial commensal bacteria in your gut. Fiber is rich in polysaccharides, which is exactly what the bacteria need to live. If you deprive them of fiber they will resort to eating the polysaccharide rich mucus layer in your gut. This makes the mucosa susceptible to harmful microbes, which cause inflammation.[18] Note that the fiber intake of people in industrialized nations is well below the recommended daily range of 28–35 grams for adults.

A discussion about what causes mucoid plaque would perhaps not be complete without mentioning chemicals. That's what one usually thinks of when one hears the word "detox". Various chemicals do in fact cause damage to the mucosa. Studies show that alcohol consumption promotes gram-negative bacteria overgrowth in the intestines. The bacteria produce endotoxins, which activate proteins and immune cells that promote intestinal inflammation.[19] Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) cause damage to the mucosa. [10] In fact, researchers use either NSAIDs, alcohol, or hypertonic saline in acute animal damage models to study how and why mucoid plaque forms.[20] Food additives such as carrageenan, xanthan gum, maltodextrin, and carboxymethyl cellulose are known to cause intestinal inflammation and damage.[10] Even herbs and spices like black pepper, cloves, garlic, ginger, horseradish, and mustard can cause intestinal damage.

Now, you might have heard of the mucusless diet. It was first proposed by Arnold Ehret.[25] And it was apparently later adopted by other gurus such as Robert Gray, John R. Christopher, Norman Walker, Alfredo Bowman (Dr. Sebi), and Richard Anderson. The idea of the diet is that certain foods, particularly dairy, meat, legumes, and grains, cause the body to produce unhealthy mucus. The use of the word "mucus" is actually a misnomer. What so-called mucus-forming foods actually do is that they directly or indirectly cause damage to the mucosa as I described above. This results in a "mucoid cap" (mucoid plaque) forming over the damaged area. An important point to recognize is that some modern pathologists inappropriately refer to mucoid cap as "mucus".[20] [21] [23] [24]

References


[1] See journal article called "Role of mucus in the repair of gastric epithelial damage in the rat. Inhibition of epithelial recovery by mucolytic agents".

[2] See book called "Pharmacology of Peptic Ulcer Disease". The ISBN-13 is 978-3-642-75860-7. On page 194 it says that mucoid plaque has been likened to an "everyday" phenomenon in response to the ingestion of food and the mechanical grinding of digestion.

[3] See journal article called "Milk intake and risk of mortality and fractures in women and men: cohort studies". The doi is 10.1136/bmj.g6015.

[4] See journal article called "Wound healing of intestinal epithelial cells".

[5] See journal article called "The inflammation theory of disease". It explains how TLRs, which trigger acute inflammation, can also maintain chronic inflammation by responding to commensal bacteria in the gut.

[6] See book called "Tidy's Physiotherapy". The ISBN is 978-0-443-10392-6. Go to page 339.

[7] See journal article called Diet rapidly and reproducibly alters the human gut microbiome. Here is a free copy.

[8] See book called "Tissue Cleansing Through Bowel Management".

[9] See journal article called "Comparison with ancestral diets suggests dense acellular carbohydrates promote an inflammatory microbiota, and may be the primary dietary cause of leptin resistance and obesity".

[10] See journal article called "Combinatorial effects of diet and genetics on inflammatory bowel disease pathogenesis".

[11] See journal article called "Effect of honey in improving the gut microbial balance".

[12] See journal article called "Chronic metabolic acidosis destroys pancreas". You can get it here.

[13] See journal article called Antinutritional properties of plant lectins. There is a free copy here.

[14] See journal article called "Scanning electron microscopy of soy protein-induced damage of small bowel mucosa in infants".

[15] See journal article called "Dietary Advanced Glycation Endproducts Induce an Inflammatory Response in Human Macrophages in Vitro".

[16] See journal article called "Advanced Glycation End Products in Foods and a Practical Guide to Their Reduction in the Diet".

[17] See journal article called "Evaluation of the deleterious health effects of consumption of repeatedly heated vegetable oil".

[18] See journal article called "A Dietary Fiber-Deprived Gut Microbiota Degrades the Colonic Mucus Barrier and Enhances Pathogen Susceptibility".

[19] See journal article called "Alcohol and Gut-Derived Inflammation". It says: "Studies show that alcohol promotes both dysbiosis and bacterial overgrowth, which in turn leads to an increase in the release of endotoxins, produced by gram-negative bacteria. Endotoxins activate proteins and immune cells that promote inflammation."

[20] See book called "Gastric Cytoprotection: A Clinician’s Guide". The ISBN is 978-1-4684-5699-8. Go to page 84. You can read it for free at books.google.com. It says: "[Mucoid cap] is quite different in properties and composition from the original adherent mucus over the undamaged mucosa, although it has been wrongly designated as mucus by some."

[21] See journal article called "Gastroduodenal mucus bicarbonate barrier: protection against acid and pepsin". It says: "This was compounded by the misnaming, as mucus, of the mucoid cap seen on histological sections of reepithelializing gastric mucosa following acute damage. The mucoid cap on top of the damaged and repairing mucosa is primarily a fibrin gel with necrotic cells and remains of the adherent mucus layer from the original, undamaged mucosa."

[22] See textbook called "Pathology for the Health Professions". The ISBN is 978-0-323-35721-0. You can read it for free at google books. Go to page 34.

[23] See journal article called "Gastroduodenal mucosal protection". It was written by A. Allen, G. Flemstrom, A. Garner, and E. Kivilaakso. It says: "This layer is frequently referred to as a mucus or mucoid cap; however, its designation as mucus is misleading".

[24] See textbook called "Glycoprotein Methods and Protocols: The Mucins". It's the 2000 edition. You can read it for free at google books. On page 58 it says: "This mucoid cap has been confused with the adherent mucus that covers the normal undamaged mucosa; however, it is a quite different structure consisting primarily of a fibrin gel and necrotic cells with some mucin staining."

[25] See his book called "Mucusless Diet Healing System: Scientific Method of Eating Your Way to Health". You can buy it here. You can also read it for free here.
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Mucoid Plaque is a Scientifically Proven Reality

Mucoid Plaque from textbook called "A Colour Atlas of the Digestive System".

Take a look at this photograph. Have you ever eliminated something like this? Some of you will recognize this as mucoid plaque. If you never heard of mucoid plaque before then look it up. Now, I have a little bit of a surprise for you. This photograph did not come from a colon cleansing enthusiast. It came from a conventional textbook called A Colour Atlas of the Digestive System.[13] It was actually removed from a young woman with irritable bowel syndrome.

You will hear different explanations as to what mucoid plaque actually is. Walter Bastedo [15] spoke of it as some sort of tough mucus. Benard Jensen [18] and Robert Gray [19] both thought it was primarily a mixture of old compacted feces and sticky mucus. Richard Anderson thinks it's coagulated mucus that compounds with other unspecified elements.[20] Skeptics, on the other hand, want you to believe that it is simply the psyllium and bentonite shake that cleansers typically ingest.[17]

But all these people are wrong. What mucoid plaque actually is, in reality, is a mixture of primarily necrotic epithelium cellular debris, fibrin and mucus that naturally forms over damaged areas of the gastrointestinal tract. It may be composed of other things as well such as bacteria, digested food, albumin, and inflammatory cells. But it's primarily necrotic tissue, fibrin and mucus.

If you open up a textbook of wound healing you will see that it is referred to as "eschar" or "slough" and is clinically described as "black", "brown", "gray", "yellow", "green", "hard", "soft", "mucoid", "stringy", "sticky", "rubbery", "leathery", "putrid" and "foul".[21] Incidentally, this is exactly how Richard Anderson, Robert Gray, and Benard Jensen clinically described mucoid plaque! [22] In the fourth edition of Clinical Gastroenterology by Howard M. Spiro there is a nice endoscopic photograph of mucoid plaque.[14] It's plate 83. Here it is:

Endoscopic photograph of mucoid plaque. Its from the fourth edition of "Clinical Gastroenterology" by Howard M. Spiro.
This is plate 83. It depicts acute ischemic colitis. The caption reads "The necrotic mucosa is sloughing off extensively, producing temporary bridges across the lumen of the colon." Medical science sometimes calls this "mucoid plaque". See reference number 1.

This is probably in need of an explanation. So let me explain. Everyone knows about the adherent mucus layer. But there is another layer that is distinct from the adherent mucus layer that everyone is ignoring.[2][3][4] Medical science calls it "mucoid cap". [2-12] But occasionally, medical science also calls it "mucoid coat"[4] or "mucoid plaque".[1] You see, everyday the food that you eat is causing damage to your mucosa.[5] This causes a type of chronic inflammation whereby fibrinogen and necrotic cellular debris mixes in with the adherent mucus layer forming a "cap" over the damaged mucosa. Mucoid cap is substantially thicker than the adherent mucus layer. [4] It is over ten times thicker. [3] It protects the damaged mucosa from digestive acids while it undergoes repair.

Normally, to endoscopists peering into the intestines, mucoid cap has a "granular" appearance.[4] It will also cover up any blood vessels or villi so you can't see them. Endoscopists are so used to seeing this that they think it is "normal".[23] But they don't realize that what they are actually looking at is a mucus-exudate mixture covering up the eschar underneath.[4] Exudate itself is a mixture of variable amounts of albumin, fibrinogen, inflammatory cells, and red blood cells. It may be green, white, pink, red, tan or yellow. But it is most commonly pink or tan. Within the mucus, the fibrinogen coagulates into rubbery fibrin.[4] I believe the albumin might also coagulate within the mucus as well. Forstner observed that when a mucus-albumin mixture is exposed to a pH of 4.5 or lower, it forms into a dense white precipitate.[24] In any event, this mucus-exudate mixture forms a continuous cover over the eschar. To the uninitiated it can look like tissue.

But during acute inflammation, protein and white cells leach from blood vessels and percolate through the mucoid cap layer and into the lumen. The protein may enhance the growth of proteinase producing bacteria. The proteinase are also derived from white cells. In any event, the proteinase enzymes break down the mucus.[27] What follows is the disintegration of the mucoid cap layer.[28] This is called autolytic debridement. At first, the enzymes disintegrate the mucus-exudate mixture revealing the eschar underneath. Gastroenterologists sometimes call this "focal necrosis".[29] Later, the eschar rehydrates and swells up turning toward a yellow or tan "slough" that is soft and loose.[25] You can see this happening in plate 83. It depicts acute inflammation of a colitis patient. The eschar is "sloughing off" extensively producing temporary bridges across the lumen of the colon.

This is precisely what bonafide intestinal cleansers are designed to do. They contain either proteolytic enzymes or mucolytic herbs, which disintegrate the mucoid cap layer. It's called chemical debridement. The Journal of Family Practice published a critical article about the dangers of colon cleansing.[26] They give a case of a 49-year-old African American man who came to their hospital because of vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. He had used a colon cleanser a few days earlier. A computed tomography scan suggested an early or partial small bowel obstruction while a colonoscopy and biopsy revealed "chronic and acute inflammation". What is actually going on is what you see in plate 83.

Look, Brian Dunning is woefully misinformed. On his podcast Skeptoid he claims that the only recorded instances of mucoid plaque "snakes" in "all of medical history" come from the toilets of people who take these cleansing pills. This is not true. The two photographs I showed you came from patients who did not take any psyllium or bentonite. And let's not forget that mucoid plaque originally had nothing to do with psyllium or bentonite. As far as I can see, Walter Bastedo is the first person to advocate colon cleansing to remove mucoid plaque from the intestines as a way to alleviate autointoxication.[15] He writes in the Journal of the American Medical Association:
When one sees the dirty gray, brown or blackish sheets, strings and rolled up wormlike masses of tough mucus with a rotten or dead-fish odor that are obtained by colon irrigations, one does not wonder that these patients feel ill and that they obtain relief and show improvement as the result of the irrigation.
His colitis patients never took any psyllium or bentonite. Byron Robinsona's [16] colitis patients also never took any psyllium or bentonite:
The clinical symptoms are colicky pains and the evacuation of masses of mucus. The mucous masses may consist of flat (even membranes) long bands, ribbons, shreds or rolled-up tubes. Some portions assume a spiral form. . .In a male the evacuation showed more string or ribbon-like processes. . .Sometimes the masses consist of large, wide and thick leathery-like membranes; at other times, long ribbon-like bands or rope-like coils.
Skeptics are spreading unscientific nonsense. They're claiming that psyllium and/or bentonite comes out looking like mucoid plaque. Experiments published in peer-reviewed medical journals have always shown that psyllium comes out as "soft" and "smooth" stools. There is no mention that it comes out rubbery, stringy or that it forms a cast of the intestines.

I know that Edward Uthman from quackwatch.org is a pathologist, and he claims that mucoid plaque is "a complete fabrication with no anatomic basis". But he is ignorant. Peer-reviewed medical journals and textbooks talk about mucoid plaque. See my references 1 through 12. Mucoid plaque is a conventional medical concept.

References

[1] See the 1973 edition of Diseases of the Colon & Rectum. It is volume 16 and number 6. The title of the article is "Ischemic Proctosigmoiditis: Report of a case". It was written by Won Sik Cynn & Robert R. Rickert. You can get it here. Go to page 539. It says "Early superficial zones of infarction may be covered by a mucoid plaque". On page 540, it defines mucoid plaque as a membrane of mucus, fibrin, necrotic cells, and a variable inflammatory exudate.

[2] See book called "Glycoprotein Methods and Protocols: The Mucins". It was published in year 2000 and written by Anthony Corfield. The ISBN is 0-89603-720-7. You can read it at books.google.com. Go to page 58. It speaks of a protective "mucoid cap" on the surface of damaged mucosa. It says it is "quite different" than the adherent mucus layer "consisting primarily of a fibrin gel and necrotic cells with some mucin".

[3] See article called "The Role of Mucus in the Protection of the Gastroduodenal Mucosa". It's in the Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology. I'm talking about volume 21 and supplement 125. It's dated 1986. Somewhere on pages 71-78, it talks about how the epithelial repair process is protected by a gelatinous coat of primarily a fibrin-based gel, mucus and necrotic cells that is "over ten times" thicker and "distinct" from the adherent mucus layer.

[4] See the book called "Gastric Cytoprotection: A Clinician’s Guide". The ISBN is 978-1-4684-5699-8. You can read it at books.google.com. It was published in 1989. Go to page 84. It speaks of a "mucoid coat" that is "quite different" than the adherent mucus layer. It says it is "substantially thicker" and visibly more "granular and sloppy" in appearance than the adherent mucus layer. It says it is composed principally of fibrin gel and necrotic cells with mucus as a relatively minor component. Also on page 84, it talks about how the "coagulation" of fibrin is "facilitated" by the adherent mucus layer providing a "template" for the deposition of fibrin. On page 85 there is actually a drawing of a cross section of mucoid plaque. It depicts the eschar as being completely covered by "mucus" (It's actually a mucus-exudate mixture). On page 87, it calls it "mucoid cap".

[5] See the book called "Pharmacology of Peptic Ulcer Disease". The ISBN-13 is 978-3-642-75860-7. It was written by Martin Collen and Stanley Benjamin. It was published in 1991. Go to page 194. It says that "mucoid cap" has been likened to an "everyday" phenomenon that forms in response to the ingestion of food and the mechanical grinding of digestion.

[6] See textbook called "Fundamentals of Inflammation". You can read it at books.google.com. The ISBN is 978-0-521-88729-8. It was published in 2010. Go to page 283. It talks about how a "mucoid cap" consisting of "cellular debris, mucus, and plasma proteins" forms over damaged regions of the epithelial surface.

[7] See textbook called "Physiology of the Gastrointestinal Tract". The ISBN is978-0-12-382026-6. It's the fifth edition, and it was published in 2012. Go to chapter 43.6.3. It talks about how when the mucosa becomes damaged, a "mucoid cap" composed of "mucus, cell debris, fibrin" as well as other undefined constituents forms a coating over the mucosa surface.

[8] See textbook called "Gastritis". It was written by Robert A. Kozol. You can read it at books.google.com. The ISBN is 0-8493-5497-8. It was published in 1993. Go to page 17. It talks about how a "mucoid cap" consisting of cellular debris, mucus, fluid, and protein forms over injured mucosa.

[9] See textbook called "The Stomach: Physiology, Pathophysiology and Treatment". You can read it at books.google.com. The ISBN-13 is 978-3-540-56613-7. It was published in 1993. Go to page 89. It says that when the mucosa becomes damaged, "plasma proteins and cellular debris" mixes in with the adherent mucus layer, increasing its thickness considerably. It calls it the "mucoid cap".

[10] See "Gastroduodenal mucus bicarbonate barrier: protection against acid and pepsin" in the American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology. You can read the full text here. The doi is 10.1152/ajpcell.00102.2004. It talks about a "mucoid cap" on top of damaged and repairing mucosa that is composed of "primarily a fibrin gel with necrotic cells" and mucus from the adherent mucus layer.

[11] See textbook called "Sucralfate: From Basic Science to the Bedside". The ISBN is 978-1-4757-7019-3. You can read it at books.google.com. It was published in 1995. Go to page 100. It says that damaged mucosa may be covered by a thick layer of sloughed cells, fibrin, and mucus called the "mucoid cap".

[12] See "Pathogenesis of NSAID-induced gastroduodenal mucosal injury" in the journal called Best Practice & Research Clinical Gastroenterology. It was published in 2001. The doi is 10.1053/bega.2001.0229. You can read the full text here. It talks about how a "mucoid cap" consisting of mucus, cellular debris and plasma proteins forms within seconds of stomach or duodenum epithelial injury.

[13] See the 1989 book called A Colour Atlas of the Digestive System. It is by R.E. Pounder, M.C. Allison and A.P. Dhillon. The ISBN is 0723408866. Open to page number 155 and see photo number 439. (Note: the page numbers are at the bottom, not the top; do not confuse page numbers with photo numbers.) The book also goes by the title Color Atlas of the Digestive System. It's the exact same book; it just has a slightly different cover and different publishing information. You can search both titles at worldcat.org to find the nearest library near you.

[14] The ISBN is 0-07-105434-0.

[15] See the 1932 article called "Colon irrigations: Their administration, therapeutic application and dangers". It's actually a subtitle under the main title of "Council on Physical Therapy". You can get it here. It's in The Journal of the American Medical Association and is volume 98 and number 9. Go to pages 734-736. It was written by Walter Bastedo.

[16] See the 1899 book called "The Abdominal Brain and Automatic Visceral Ganglia". It was written by Byron Robinsona, M.D. You can read it at books.google.com. See pages 209-219.

[17] See Stephen Barrett from quackwatch, the confessions of a quackbuster at quackfiles, Brian Dunning on his podcast Skeptoid, the Skeptical Raptor, the "Full of It" section of Joe Schwarcz's book Is That A Fact?, and page 211 of Rose Shapiro's book Suckers: How Alternative Medicine Makes Fools of Us All.

[18] See book called "Tissue Cleansing Through Bowel Management". It was written by Bernard Jensen.

[19] See "The Colon Health Handbook" by Robert Gray.

[20] See the book called "Cleanse and Purify Thyself, Book 2: Secrets of Radiant Health and Energy". It was written by Richard Anderson. Go to page 59.

[21] There are three textbooks I got this from. The first is the third edition of "Wound Care: A Collaborative Practice Manual for Health Professionals". It was published in 2007 and written by Carrie Sussman & Barbara Bates-Jensen. Turn to page 197. It describes it as "gray", "yellow", "brown", "black", "mucoid", "stringy", "leathery", "hard" and "soft". The second is the second edition of "Comprehensive Wound Management". It was published in 2010 and written by Glenn Irion. Turn to page 150 and 151. It describes it as "yellow", "greenish", "hardened", "grayish", "brownish-yellow", "stringy" and "foul". The third is the fourteenth edition of "Tidy's Physiotherapy". It was published in 2008 and written by Stuart Porter. Turn to page 340. It describes fibrin as "sticky", "rubbery", and being visible as yellow-white "strands".

[22] Go to each of their books. See Richard Anderson's book called "Cleanse & Purify Thyself". I'm talking about book two. Go to pages 92-94. He described it as "soft", "gray", "yellow", "green", "brown", "black", "foul", "mucoid", and like "wet leather or rubber". Go to Robert Gray's book called "The Colon Health Handbook". See pages 8 and 67. He described it as "rubbery", "black", "hardened", "grey", "brown", "green" and "mucoid". See Bernard Jensen's book called "Tissue Cleansing Through Bowel Management". He described it as "black", "foul", "putrid", "stringy", and "hard as truck tire rubber".

[23] See book called "Helicobacter pylori, Gastritis and Peptic Ulcer". It was published in 1990 and edited by P. Malfertheiner and H. Ditschuneit. The ISBN-13 is 978-3-642-75317-6. The e-ISBN-13 is 978-3-642-75315-2. The DOI is 10.1007/978-3-642-75315-2. On page 198, it talks about a "granular" mucosa. On page 196, it says that it is one of the abnormalities that indicates the presence of "inflammatory alterations in the mucosal membrane". On page 195, it talks about how endoscopists are so used to seeing this that they mistakenly think it represents the "normal spectrum". Apparently, this ignorance has not changed any. I went to healthtap.com. A patient asked a real-life gastroenterologist the following question: what does "granular and decreased vascular pattern" of the mucosa mean? The gastroenterologist, who had 44 years experience, responded that it is usually a variant of "normal".

[24] See the 1978 edition of the journal called "Digestion". I'm talking about volume 17. The title of the article is "Intestinal Mucins in Health and Disease". It was written by J.F. Forstner. On page 245 he talks about how he observed a mucin-albumin mixture form into a dense white precipitate at pH 4.5 or lower. He guessed it was the mucin that formed into a precipitate, but I think he guessed incorrectly. It seems more probable that it is the albumin that forms into a precipitate. Think of cooked egg whites. The mucin and acid, I think, helps the albumin to coagulate like heat helps egg whites to coagulate.

[25] See the fourth edition of "Wound Care: A Collaborative Practice Manual for Health Professionals". It was written by Carrie Sussman & Barbara Bates-Jensen. The ISBN-10 is 1608317153. Go to page 447.

[26] See "The dangers of colon cleansing" in The Journal of Family Practice. You can read it here. It's volume 60 and number 8. It's dated 2011.

[27] See article called "Thickness of adherent mucus gel on colonic mucosa in humans and its relevance to colitis" in journal called gut. It's volume 35. It's dated 1994. The DOI is 10.1136/gut.35.3.353. Go to page 358.

[28] See article called "Diffuse gastric cancer" in journal called Gastroenterology Nursing. It's volume 29 issue 3. It's dated 2006. Somewhere within pages 232-236, it talks about how when the "gel structure of mucus" is destroyed, disintegration of the mucoid cap layer follows.

[29] See book called "Helicobacter pylori, Gastritis and Peptic Ulcer". It was published in 1990 and edited by P. Malfertheiner and H. Ditschuneit. The ISBN-13 is 978-3-642-75317-6. The e-ISBN-13 is 978-3-642-75315-2. The DOI is 10.1007/978-3-642-75315-2. On page 203 it suggests that active inflammation is associated with mucin depletion and "focal necrosis".
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